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Ear Muffs and Plugs

Acoustic earmuffs, also known as ear defenders: cups lined with sound-deadening material, like thermal earmuffs and headphones in appearance, which are worn as hearing protection. These may be carried on a head-band or clipped onto the sides of a Hard-hat, for use on construction sites.

Ear defenders protect the wearer from extreme noises. The head-band and outer covering is usually made from a hard thermoplastic or metal. The protection usually comes from acoustic foam – this absorbs sound waves by increasing air resistance, thus reducing the amplitude of the waves. The energy is transformed into heat.

Ear plugs

Earplugs are especially useful to people exposed to excessively noisy devices or environments (80 dB or more)

Basic Information

When persons are exposed to excessively loud environments (85 dB or more), hearing protection devices are recommended to prevent noise-induced, hearing loss.  Hearing protection should be worn whenever power tools, loud yard equipment, or firearms are used.

In the workplace, OSHA requires the use of hearing protection devices whenever a person is exposed to an average noise intensity of 90 dBA or greater over an 8 hour shift. The louder the environment, the less time that a person may spend there without the risk of incurring hearing loss. NIOSH has also developed standards for hearing protection. Compared to OSHA, the NIOSH standards are more conservative in their estimates for safe noise exposure times.

 NIOSH standards for the maximum daily exposure times at various noise levels 

Level of noise (dB A) Maximum daily exposure time
85 8hrs
91 2hrs
97 30 minutes
103 7 minutes

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Eye Wears

Personal protective equipment (PPE) simply means all equipment which is intended to be worn or held by people at work and which protects them against one or more risks to their health and safety, and any addition or accessory designed to meet that objective.

All PPE should be used as a last resort to reduce the risk taking into consideration that the risk will not be eliminated.

 Safety helmets are one of the most frequently used forms of PPE as these protect the users’ heads against:

  • impact from objects falling from above, by resisting and deflecting blows to the head.
  • Hitting fixed dangerous objects at the workplace,
  • Lateral forces – this would depend on the type of hard hat selected. Traditional hard hats are not designed to protect users from impacts to the front, side or back of the head.
  • Open flame, molten metals splash, electric shock, high temperature – this would depend on the standard of the hard hat selected for example a standard hard hat will not protect against an electric shock.

In general, protective helmets, or hard hats, should:

-Resist penetration by objects,

-Absorb the shock of a blow,

-Be water resistant and slow burning, and

-Come with instructions explaining proper adjustment and replacement

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Hands Gloves

The workplace can create many hazards for your hands, whether from chemicals, cuts or burns.

No single glove can provide appropriate protection for every work situation, therefore, it is important to assess the risk for each task and select a glove that provides specialized protection.

The following is a list of gloves and their appropriate application, according to the National Safety Council:

 Chemical/liquid-resistant gloves: Several types of gloves help protect against specific chemicals:

Butyl rubber gloves: Nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and peroxide.

Natural latex/rubber gloves: Water solutions or acids, alkalis, salts, and ketones

Nitrile rubber glovesChlorinated solvents

Neoprene gloves: Hydraulic fluids, gasoline, alcohols and organic acids

Cotton and fabric gloves: These can keep hands clean and protect against abrasions, but may not be strong enough to handle work with rough or sharp materials.

Coated fabric gloves: This type of glove can provide protection against some moderate concentrated chemicals. They can be used in laboratory work provided they are strong enough to protect against the specific chemical being handled.

Rubber, plastic or synthetic gloves: These types of glove can be used when cleaning or working with oils, solvents and other chemicals.

Leather gloves: These should be used when welding, as the leather can resist sparks and moderate heat. The risk of cuts and abrasions also can be minimized by wearing leather gloves.

Aluminized gloves: These gloves are recommended for welding, furnace and foundry work, as they provide reflective and insulating protection.

Kevlar gloves: These have a wide variety of industrial applications. They are cut- and abrasion-resistant and provide protection against both heat and cold.

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Hard hat

Personal protective equipment (PPE) simply means all equipment which is intended to be worn or held by people at work and which protects them against one or more risks to their health and safety, and any addition or accessory designed to meet that objective.

All PPE should be used as a last resort to reduce the risk taking into consideration that the risk will not be eliminated.  

Safety helmets are one of the most frequently used forms of PPE as these protect the users’ heads against:

  • impact from objects falling from above, by resisting and deflecting blows to the head.
  • Hitting fixed dangerous objects at the workplace,
  • Lateral forces – this would depend on the type of hard hat selected. Traditional hard hats are not designed to protect users from impacts to the front, side or back of the head.
  • Open flame, molten metals splash, electric shock, high temperature – this would depend on the standard of the hard hat selected for example a standard hard hat will not protect against an electric shock.

In general, protective helmets, or hard hats, should:

-Resist penetration by objects,

-Absorb the shock of a blow,

-Be water resistant and slow burning, and

-Come with instructions explaining proper adjustment and replacement

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Other Safety Items

Several other safety items available for use in various occasions 

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Safety Shoe

Safety Shoes (Boots/Chukas, Executive Shoes, Canvas)  of various brands and quality and the following features: Steel-toe Cap, Steel Mid-Sole to prevent penetration of foreign objects, Oil Resistance, Acid Resistance, Anti Slip and Shock Absorb.

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Safety Signs

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Safety Vests and Jackets

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